Hateland - Articles
??/??/?? - Fascism today - groups in Britain

Racist violence in the UK has grown to the point where, according to a Home Office crime survey in 1992, about 130,000 incidents of racial harassment, abuse and violence take place each year.

Most of these acts are probably random and sporadic. However, there is clear evidence that wherever fascist organisations are active, incidents of racial violence and harassment rise dramatically.

Since the British National Party moved into its southeast London headquarters in 1989, local organisations have reported large increases in racial incidents, including the murder of three black teenagers, Rohit Duggal, Rolan Adams and Stephen Lawrence. Following Derek Beackon's election win for the BNP in Tower Hamlets in 1993, racial violence reportedly increased by 300 per cent in the area.

Fascist and nazi organisations are not a major political force in the UK. They probably have fewer than 5,000 members in dozens of different groups, which range from political parties to small producers of race hate material.

However, support for far-right ideas is growing. One of the reasons for this is people's disillusionment with mainstream political parties and increased sympathy for racist and nationalist ideas, which are no longer seen as taboo in some national and local papers and on radio and television.

The growth of xenophobic and racist debate has led to some success for racial extremists at elections in certain areas (such as Tower Hamlets and Newham in east London). Extreme-right organisations are now electorally credible on a limited basis but they have the potential to do much better if proportional representation is ever introduced.

The main fascist threat in the UK comes from the small number of people who carry out and incite violence and hatred against minorities. In areas such as Scotland, West Yorkshire, Lancashire, the East Midlands and south and east London, assaults on black people and the desecration of Jewish, Hindu and Moslem places of worship and cemeteries are the result of an increased presence of organised racist and neo-nazi groups.

The British National Party (BNP)

Members 600

Founded by John Tyndall in 1982

Prominent members; Richard Edmonds, Anthony Lecomber, John Tyndall, Other key activists in the BNP are David Bruce, a taxi driver, who has been one of Tyndall's most trusted confidants for many years, John Peacock, who was exposed in a World In Action television investigation into nazi gun-runners in 1981, and the party's national press officer, Michael Newland.

Publications; the BNP has two regular publications. Its monthly newspaper, British Nationalist, sells around 4,000 copies. Its editor, John Morse, was prosecuted for its content in 1986 and sent to prison with Tyndall. Michael Newland is the production manager. Tyndall owns and edits a monthly magazine called Spearhead.

The name is taken from the paramilitary group which he and Colin Jordan, Britain's postwar nazi godfather, ran between 1960 and 1962. It sells fewer than 2,000 copies a month. There are some other publications such as the glossy magazine, The Rune, produced by the BNP's influential Croydon branch.

Key areas have recently been Scotland, the East Midlands, London, especially east London, Milton Keynes and Yorkshire.

Ideology and activity

The British National Party is currently the largest neo-nazi group. Its policies include belief in Jewish conspiracy theories and Holocaust denial, the forcible repatriation of ethnic minorities including Jews, and support for loyalist paramilitary terrorist organisations in Northern Ireland.

Despite standing in elections on a "law and order" platform, the party's membership includes many people with serious criminal convictions, including many of its leaders, who have a wide range of convictions for racial violence, incitement to racial hatred, arms and explosives offences and other crimes.

The BNP also supports the quasi-scientific ideas of racial eugenics and promotes the concept of racial purity through selective breeding. Tyndall, since his days as leader of the Greater Britain Movement, not only wants to deport non-whites, but also supports sterilisation of people of mixed race.

This policy comes directly from the German Nazis and Dr Mengele, who sterilised women and some male prisoners in Auschwitz. The BNP also hates gays; homophobia runs riot in some of its publications.

The BNP achieved public notoriety following the election victory of Derek Beackon on the Isle of Dogs in east London in September 1993. Campaigning under the slogan "Rights for Whites", the BNP successfully presented a semi-respectable image to some local residents, saying that whites were a minority facing discrimination in housing and employment in the area. In fact all statistics show that the local Asian population faces the highest level of discrimination and attacks.

No other BNP candidates have ever succeeded in local or national elections and Beackon lost his seat in the local council elections of May 1994, although the BNP vote increased by around 33 per cent to around 2,000 votes. The BNP faces an uncertain future under the sole unelected leadership of John Tyndall, a committed and active neo-nazi since the 1950s.

The BNP has been unable to increase its membership and several key regional activists and organisers have resigned or become less involved with the party. The peace process in Northern Ireland has confused BNP policy and the organisation has been hit by revelations that activists in Scotland and the Home Counties have been involved in drug dealing to finance party activities.

Peacock and Edmonds have responsibility for the party's international links through the international Odal Ring, of which Peacock is the British representative. He takes BNP members and supporters to rallies in various parts of Europe each year and acts as host for overseas nazis visiting Britain to attend BNP rallies and camps.

Edmonds is the British representative of the New European Order, a group which has its origins in the wartime German nazi SS. The three main overseas events that the BNP attends are the international rally in Diksmuide every August, the Rudolph Hess memorial demonstrations in Germany (Rudolf Hess was one of Germany's prewar and wartime Nazi leaders and died in prison in Berlin in 1987) and the celebration of the birthday of the late Spanish dictator, General Franco, in Madrid.

The BNP produced a well organised activists' handbook in 1994. At various times the BNP has distributed copies of Holocaust News, a publication in newspaper format which denies that the Nazi Holocaust took place. It was first produced by the National Front and reprinted and distributed via the BNP and other antisemitic groups.

It is thought that as many as 100,000 copies have been printed and circulated in the past seven years. The party's bookshop and mail order business, which is run by Richard Edmonds, brings in a large part of the BNP's income. It sells a range of material including books, tapes and videos produced by nazi and racist groups in Britain and around the world.

Nick Griffin, former chair of the National Front, has played an interesting role in the BNP. Although it is claimed that he is no longer a member of any group, including his own creation, the International Third Position, Tyndall has allowed him to become editor of The Rune, the most influential BNP publication, and to speak at BNP branch meetings with an air of real authority.

While Tyndall denies that he is ready to retire, it would appear that Griffin may not be prepared to wait for Tyndall to go before making a bid for leadership of the BNP. The civil war raging on the far right between the BNP and Combat 18 / NSA may give him the opportunity he is seeking to come up through the middle and take over, as he has allies in both camps.

The National Front (NF)
[since spring 1995 one faction is also known as National Democrats]


Members 300 (today). A total of 64,000 members passed through the organisation between 1967 and 1979 and membership peaked at about 17,500 between 1971-74.

Founded 1967

Prominent members
Ian Anderson, leader; Martin Wingfield and John McAuley are leading activists.

Publications The NF publishes a monthly newspaper, The Flag, which is often less offensively racist than some mass circulation newspapers like The Sun. It also publishes a glossy magazine, Vanguard, which started off as a monthly but now appears infrequently.

Key areas the West Country, the West Midlands and the Home Counties, north of London.

Ideology and activity
The National Front dominated the far right in the 1970s. Many NF supporters were former Conservative voters who had drifted away during Edward Heath's leadership. After Margaret Thatcher's election victory in 1979 on a strong right-wing and anti-immigration platform, many of them transferred their support back to the Conservatives.

This put the NF into a near-terminal decline. For the next decade the party suffered a series of splits, ideological disputes and leadership struggles. The NF has started to make a bit of a comeback since 1993, despite the lacklustre leadership of Ian Anderson.

It presents itself as a moderate alternative to the more overtly nazi BNP. It did relatively well in the 1994 local council elections, gaining around 10 per cent of the vote in some areas. With firmer leadership and a better organisational structure, the NF could possibly again become a leading fascist organisation.

In late 1994 the NF moved to a new headquarters. It was previously based in Anderson's home in Newham, east London, for almost ten years. Anderson earns a living as a printer. The NF has benefited from around £150,000 from two wills of dead fascists.

It is believed that the second of these, which brought in around £110,000, is the main reason for the NF's increased activity during 1994. In spring 1995 Ian Anderson and what appears to be only half the membership gave up the name National Front and renamed the party the National Democrats, leading to a split.

Those staying loyal to the old NF name included John McAuley. Both groups are fielding separate candidates in local elections and neither is doing very well.

Combat 18 (C18)

Members 200 (approx)

Founded 1992

Prominent members Paul David "Charlie" Sargent, Steve Sargent, Wilf Browning.

Publications include Red Watch, Putsch, The Order, Thorwould, and a more recent magazine named Combat 18.

Key areas Combat 18 operates over a wider area than any of the other nazi groups. It is active in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland and strong in Yorkshire, the Home Counties, London, the East Midlands and more recently the West Midlands.

Because Combat 18's members come from already established groups, they can ride on the backs of their home organisations wherever they exist. When it has suited Combat 18, it has absorbed whole BNP branches such as in Northern Ireland during the latter part of 1994.

Ideology and activity

Combat 18 is a confrontational terrorist group formed into close-knit cells. They include the more violent street activists, members and supporters of groups such as the BNP, Blood and Honour, the Ku Klux Klan and the British National Socialist Movement, and fascist football hooligans such as the notorious Chelsea Headhunters.

Combat 18 is an openly nazi organisation (the numbers 1 and 8 refer to the initials of Adolf Hitler). It believes in attacking and murdering blacks, Jews, lesbians and gays, and other minorities, and publishes hit lists containing the names, addresses and telephone numbers of those it views as "enemies of the white race" in a number of publications (see above).

Combat 18 activists have been responsible for several death threats, serious assaults and arson attacks over the past four years, and have strong links with terrorist loyalist paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland.

Combat 18's street leader, Paul David "Charlie" Sargent, has convictions for drug dealing and trafficking. There is evidence that the group is closely connected with large-scale illegal drug imports and deals to raise money for neo-nazi activities in the UK and abroad.

Combat 18's idea of forming small cell-like structures with the capacity to carry out acts of terror has gained growing support on the far right in recent years. The ultimate aim of this strategy is to start a "race war" on the streets.

One of the ideologues of this new thinking is Dr William Pearce, the US nazi guru, whose National Alliance has now been established in the UK. It calls itself the National Socialist Alliance and it is a loose formation of nazi skinhead groups as well as the more traditional nazi elite group, the League of St George.

The ideas of targeting mixed race couples and fighting a race war have also been developed and promoted by Louis Beam, one of the most fanatical of America's new breed nazis. A glossy magazine called The Oak, published independently by John Cato and Paul Jeffries, has close links with Combat 18.

The Oak is modelled on Pierce's magazine National Vanguard. Another publication purporting to come from a group called the White Wolves contained bomb making diagrams and instructions on how to attack and kill victims.

The magazine was thought to be a smokescreen for Combat 18, which at that time was under increasing pressure from investigative journalists, MPs and some regional police forces. Combat 18 is linked with a number of terrorist groups in Sweden, such as VAM, who have robbed banks, stolen military weapons, planted bombs and killed people.

It is also in contact with the German nazi terrorist group Anti-Antifa, which has carried out at least two bombings in which people have died.

National Socialist Alliance (NSA)

Members Nazi individuals and groups

Founded in summer 1994 as the political offshoot of the paramilitary Combat 18

Publications supported by C18, Blood and Honour and British Movement publications

Key areas In a series of closed regional meetings around the country the NSA has taken over completely some BNP branches, such as those in Northern Ireland, Halifax and Oldham, and has made serious inroads into others.

Ideology and activity

The NSA has grown rapidly into a far-right umbrella organisation. It has mopped up a large number of BNP activists as well as absorbing the whole of Blood and Honour (see below) and several small hard-core nazi groups such as sections of British Movement and the British National Socialist Movement and most of the British Ku Klux Klan (see below).

Other tiny groups such as the Aryan Resistance Movement have also joined up. In the late summer of 1995 the BNP and NSA/ C18 leaders and their followers were clashing violently.

In a series of pamphlets, letters and magazine articles the BNP accused C18 of being a state set-up, the aim of which was to wreck the BNP and seize control of the far right. The NSA/C18 countered with claims that the BNP had sold out the nazi movement and the "white race".

Blood and Honour

Members Nazi skinhead bands

Founded by Ian Stuart Donaldson in 1987.

Publications Blood and Honour is the title of an irregularly produced glossy publication around which nazi skinhead bands and their followers are organised. National socialist in orientation, the publication displays swastikas and other nazi imagery prominently in its pages. British Oi! supports Blood and Honour and operates from a PO Box in Derby.

Key areas Active over the whole country.

Ideology and activity

Set up by nazi skinhead bands who had become dissatisfied with the National Front, Blood and Honour is not a membership organisation but comprises several thousand British followers and an international following numbering tens of thousands.

Supporters come from groups across the fascist spectrum, regardless of party differences. Blood and Honour sees its role as uniting the nazi skinhead movement. Ian Stuart Donaldson, the now deceased lead singer of the band Skrewdriver, who set up Blood and Honour, gave this reason for wanting to attract young supporters:

"Eventually there will be a race war and we have to be strong enough in numbers to win it. I'll die to keep this country pure and if it means bloodshed at the end of the day, then let it be."

Recently having become ridden with infighting, Blood and Honour has split into two factions, both producing a Blood and Honour publication, one run by Combat 18 and the other by Paul Burnley, the lead singer of the band No Remorse.

Blood and Honour supporters put on skinhead concerts (gigs) across Britain in small venues such as pubs and working men's clubs. Cloaked in secrecy, the concert details are passed on to supporters by word of mouth, in the case of smaller events, and are not even advertised in their publications.

For larger events a redirection point is advertised to prevent anti-fascists discovering the venue early enough to stop the concert going ahead. This is due to the opposition that they have faced from anti-fascists, which has resulted in them making significant financial losses when venues have pulled out at the last minute.

At larger events, anti-fascists have prevented Blood and Honour supporters from getting from the redirection point to the venue. In addition to the concerts and the publications of the Blood and Honour movement, huge sums of money are raised by the sale of records, compact discs, T-shirts, badges, patches and other paraphernalia.

Blood and Honour generates a considerable amount of money from outside Britain, where it has many more supporters. Most of the material is sold by mail order or at concerts. The absence of the sale of the material in shops is partially due to the success of an anti-fascist campaign in 1989, which resulted in the removal of Blood and Honour products from a number of shops in London's Carnaby Street area.

Due to problems faced by what were two of the main record companies and distributors of nazi skinhead records, based in Germany and France, there is now a British-run record label called I.S.D. records and a far larger company has recently been set up in the United States called Resistance Records.

Because of the nature of the nazi skinhead movement, bands and the magazines come and go all the time. However what remains is a hard core of very experienced activists who in some cases have been involved in the movement since the 1970s.

In the past Blood and Honour has had a close relationship with the BNP. This has changed at an organisational, but not at the supporters', level due to the intervention of Combat 18. Recently, under the leadership of Combat 18, Blood and Honour has divided into four geographical divisions:

East Anglia, Midlands, Northeast and Wales and the West Country. All the main bands have members who have criminal convictions, usually for racially motivated violence.

Blood and Honour Bands

English Rose - From Leicester, the lead singer is currently serving an 18 month prison sentence.

Battlezone - This Chelmsford based based band is unlikely to play any more as it has incurred the wrath of Combat 18 in the struggle for control of Blood and Honour.

British Standard - Glasgow based band, recently reformed. Brutal Attack - Formerly known as ÔDead Paki in the Gutter'.

Celtic Warrior - From Cardiff, this band was formed by a surviving member of Violent Storm, a band that no longer exists since its members were killed in a car crash while travelling to an international Blood and Honour concert.

Chingford Attack - Formed in 1994 by followers of Combat 18. They have played in their home area in Waltham Forest, London .

No Remorse - Front man for No Remorse is Paul Burnley, who currently controls a Blood and Honour faction. One of the best known bands, they play many concerts abroad and in 1994 toured the United States.

Razors Edge - Birmingham based band who now have former Skrewdriver band member Martin Cross playing with them.

Section '88 - New band on the Blood and Honour circuit.

Skrewdriver - The best known band has folded since the death of its lead singer and founder of Blood and Honour, Ian Stuart Donaldson, in a recent car crash.

Skullhead - Based in the North-East, Skullhead is one the best known bands on the Ôscene'. They are unable to play at the moment as one of the band members is serving a prison sentence for violence.

Squadron - South London based band plays extensively in Britain and Europe. There are many more bands than these, new ones are formed all the time.

Symbols of the nazi skinhead movement

Blood and Honour Logo - incorporates the three pronged swastika of the South African AWB.

Celtic Cross - One of the most popular symbols, this has become a symbol of international fascism.

Odal Rune - Symbol used during nazi era in Germany.

Sieg Rune - Symbol used during nazi era in Germany. Two together form the emblem of the Waffen SS.

Swastika - Unsurprising symbol of neo-nazis everywhere.

Wolf's Hook - Symbol used during nazi era in Germany.

International Third Position (ITP)

Members: under 100

Founded 1990

Prominent members The organisation is run by three former National Front executive members, Nick Griffin, a Cambridge graduate, Derek Holland, a Catholic fundamentalist, and Colin Todd, a convicted thug who has travelled widely for the organisation.

Publications Final Conflict

Key areas of activity are London and Kent.

Ideology and activity

The International Third Position is a small offshoot from the former terrorist-oriented third position ("a third position between capitalism and communism") wing of the National Front. It is a nazi organisation that espouses ecological and animal rights causes.

Members are encouraged to infiltrate green, anarchist and hunt saboteur movements. The ITP's attempts to involve nationalist groups, such as the Sons of Glendwyr in Wales, in violence has given rise to strong suspicions over its true aims and who really runs it.

A series of misfortunes suffered by groups overseas that had dealings with the ITP have added to these suspicions. The ITP produces a range of propaganda posters and stickers including anti-abortion material and stickers supporting despotic Middle Eastern regimes against the state of Israel.

It has very influential international connections, particularly in Libya, Iraq, Spain, Croatia and the USA, and more recently in the former Soviet bloc.

In the early 1990s Griffin formed links with David Irving, the historical revisionist writer, and with the leaders of the BNP and Combat 18.

Third Way

Members under 100

Founded 1989

Prominent members Patrick Harrington, leader, and Graham Williamson, activist

Publications Third Way produces a rather scrappy publication called Third Way. Its circulation, like the group's membership, is tiny. It stole the name of an ecological group, Green Wave, a few years ago and still produces an occasional publication of that name.

Ideology and activity

Third way is another tiny offshoot from the NF, run by another former NF leader, Patrick Harrington. Third Way has dumped the ideological baggage of overt national socialism in favour of trying to appear respectable. Instead it concerns itself with philosophical issues, such as attempting to identify true European culture and identity.

Third Way claims to support separatism rather than racism. It claims it is not antisemitic and has links with extremist black separatists and anti-Zionist Jews. Third Way and its former partners in the ITP also maintain strong links with a number of Islamic fundamentalist groups, such as the Islamic Party in Britain and the Algerian Islamic Front.

Harrington is assisted by Graham Williamson, who has run local issue campaigns such as support for local shops and demands for school crossings, as well as animal rights campaigns in Essex and East London.

One of the group's best activists outside London, David Owens, now based in Leeds, defected to the BNP in 1994, leaving a large gap in Third Way's provincial organisation. Its main areas of activity are London and Kent.

Third Way's international links are with far-right groups in Belgium and France, and more recently in Eastern Europe and Italy. Patrick Harrington has travelled to the USA on a number of occasions where he met black nationalist extremists including the foreign minister of Louis Farrakhan's Nation of Islam organisation.

He also has connections with a tiny extreme Jewish Orthodox sect, which supports "separate development" Ð a form of apartheid. Both Harrington and Nick Griffin of the ITP have kept in contact with two exiled Italian terrorists, Massimo Morsello and Roberto Fiore, who have lived in Britain since the early 1980s.

They were allowed to stay here as recompense for helping MI6 in the Middle East. They left Italy after the bombing of Bologna railway station in 1981, in which 86 people, including two British students, died and more than 200 were injured.

The exiled Italians were wanted not for the actual bombing but for their role in acting as messengers between a section of the Italian Secret Service, which was involved in the bombing, and fascist terrorists.

The English Nationalist Movement (ENM)

Members under 100

Founded 1994

Publications Hiding behind a series of false names and a box number, the ENM produces an occasional publication, The Crusader. It has also resurrected Rising Books, the political soldiers' publishing and distribution organisation.

Ideology and activity

The English Nationalist Movement was set up by the ITP. Its programme is almost identical to that of the NF political soldiers, the forerunner of Third Way and the ITP.

However the ENM differs fundamentally in its position on the Middle East. It has moved away from the political soldiers' support for the PLO and instead turned towards the Iranian-backed Hamas movement known internationally for its terrorist links.

The membership of this shadowy outfit is thought to be even smaller than those of Third Way and the International Third Position. Those behind the ENM were almost certainly leading lights in the ITP.

Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

Members up to 400 supporters in the UK, mostly drawn from the membership of other fascist organisations.

Founded 1990

Prominent members A key British member and recruiter was Ian Stuart Donaldson until his death in 1993. One main Klan organiser is Allan Beshella, a convicted child molester.

Ideology and activity

The KKK has been in the news several times during the 1990s following the violent activities in Wales of Allan Beshella. Beshella trained with and organised for the KKK in the United States in Texas and California. Before returning to Britain, his birthplace, he was arrested for possession of an arsenal of modern weapons.

The British National Socialist Movement (BNSM)

Members under 200

Founded 1968 by Colin Jordan

Prominent members The man thought to be its leader is Danny Tolan from south London. Others involved are Kevin Watmough and Stephen Frost from Yorkshire and Gordon Jackson.

Publications The main publication, The Sunwheel, has been joined by a number of other small circulation hardline nazi news sheets and magazines in the past two years.

Key areas British National Socialist Movement is based in Yorkshire, Scotland, West Midlands and London.

Ideology and activity

The British National Socialist Movement is a small, semi-underground organisation. It comprises the hard core of the British Movement, which was formed in the 1960s by Colin Jordan, the godfather of British nazism.

Jordan still commands respect as an ideological guru to the British postwar neo-nazi movement and contributes to the BNP publication, Spearhead. The BNSM's core membership consists of extremely violent individuals who have been involved with illegal arms and drugs and in armed robberies.

In the 1990s a number of tiny variations of this group appeared, often containing members of Colin Jordan's original National Socialist Movement, which preceded the British Movement in the years 1962-68.

The organisation has a uniform but some of its younger members have been in trouble with the leadership by wearing it publicly over the past four years. This should have led to prosecutions under the 1936 Public Order Act, which makes it illegal to wear political uniforms in public.

The idea of self help is very strong among the members. They have set up Project 2,000, which hopes to buy land so that members can set up US nazi-style communes. Combat 18 and the National Socialist Alliance have also promoted this idea since 1993.

At one time the BNSM held regular social events to raise money towards this project and for setting up its own publishing operation.

League of St George (LSG)

Founded 1973/4

Prominent members John Harrison, a security officer and shop steward at the Ford factory in Dagenham, is currently responsible for running the LSG on a day to day basis. The League of St George's leadership formerly included a millionaire tax exile, Robin Rushton, Michael Griffin, who had strong links with the right wing of the provisional IRA, and Ludmilla Baack, alias Lucy Roberts, who had links with the wartime SS in Europe. Keith Thompson, who was exposed as a Searchlight informer in the early 1990s, still appears to be connected with Steven Books, the LSG's mail order outlet. Roger Clare, who produces Target, is a long-time nazi with international ties. He currently lives in Kent, but has lived and been active for the far right in New Zealand and South Africa.

Publications People involved with the LSG produce Target, a hit list bulletin, which claims to be "the voice of Pro Fascist Action". The LSG's official publication is League Sentinel. It is far less impressive than its predecessors, League Review and National Review, which provided a debating forum for national socialist ideas and plans for current and future activities from the time of the League's formation in the mid-1970s

Key areas Based in London.

Ideology and activity

The League of St George is a small and highly secretive organisation, which was formerly very influential on the European nazi scene. It was an elite organisation, which helped provide safe houses for wanted neo-nazi terrorists and had links with aging nazis from Germany's Nazi era.

Hate groups and propagandists

Apart from the larger or more openly nazi and fascist groups mentioned above, there exists a multitude of tiny groups and individuals, who publish tens of thousands of books, booklets, leaflets and stickers every year.

They are typified by people like Lady Jane Birdwood, who picked up two convictions at the Old Bailey in the 1990s for producing and distributing racist and antisemitic material. Her organisations, Self Help and British Solidarity, publish an occasional paper called Choice.

Birdwood works with a small circle of racists and antisemites such as Joy Page and Dr Kitty Little. She inherited a massive card index from Edward Martell, the far-right Conservative trade union basher. He ran a scab publishing operation in the 1950s.

Another veteran antisemite is Rosine de Bouneviaille, a leading member in the League of Empire Loyalists and the NF, when it was run by A K Chesterton in its early days. She continues to publish the hate magazine Candour and has used her large Hampshire home to host various far-right functions and activities. She is a traditional Catholic.

The British Section of the Viking Youth used her home as its address. The Viking Youth was based on its German counterpart Wiking Jugend, direct descendants of the Hitler Youth. Wiking Jugend was banned in 1994. Don Martin runs the British League of Rights, a group with strong ties with anti-Jewish bodies in Canada, South Africa and Australia.

He also runs Bloomfield Books, which sells such classic works of anti-Jewish hate as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Another group with strong links in South Africa is the White Rhino Club, run from Kent by Alan Harvey, who publishes South African Patriot in Exile. Harvey has strong links with Ulster loyalists and a wide range of far-right and racist groups in Britain.

When the club was first formed, it had many members who had fought as mercenaries for white regimes in southern Africa. Michael Walker, a former London organiser of the National Front, who now lives and works in Germany, uses his very infrequent glossy quasi-intellectual publication, Scorpion, to disseminate the ideas of the traditional extreme right and the new right internationally.

He organises conferences in London with the assistance of Patrick Harrington of the Third Way and Richard Lawson of the nazi cultural group Iona at least once every two years. Scorpion and its ideas are much favoured by elements of the extreme right in the former Soviet bloc and Italy.

The now very old former supporters of Sir Oswald Mosley's Blackshirt movement still meet twice a year for dinners and after dinner speeches and lectures. They maintain a publication called Comrade, which attempts to rewrite their history with the assistance of a number of young academics and undergraduates.

David Irving, the Holocaust revisionist writer, still uses the name of the group he formed in 1980, the Clarendon Club, as a smokescreen for his speaking engagements in Britain. His meetings are guarded, attended and organised mostly by members of the BNP and Combat 18. He also set up a political operation called Focal Point.

It has had a very low profile, but still appears to exist. Irving publishes a broadsheet-style paper, Action Report, which is one of the best produced papers on the British far right. He is currently banned from visiting several countries because of his extreme views. Irving works very closely with Antony Hancock from Sussex, who is one of the world's leading publishers and printers of nazi material and material that denies the Holocaust.

The Hancock family have their roots in the Mosley movement and Monday Club. They have serviced most of Britain's far-right groups by carrying out their printing when other printers refused. Hancock has convictions for political activities and for fraud, and is extremely well connected to nazi and racist groups throughout the world.

Hancock works under a series of false names and has used a number of different names for his companies.

Book clubs

A series of book clubs spread nazi and racist ideas across a wide spectrum of the far right in Britain. Almost all of them buy material from Dr William Pierce in the USA. It consists of nazi and racist publications, tapes and videos, including material on guerrilla warfare and bomb making manuals.

Colin Jordan distributes various items including a newssheet, Gothic Ripples, which takes its name from the publication of Arnold Leese. Leese was a prewar British fascist leader who advocated the use of gas chambers before the nazis ever put the idea into practice. He was so extreme that he referred to Sir Oswald Mosley as a "kosher fascist".

He died in the 1950s leaving Jordan to carry on his work. The League of St George runs its own book service, Steven Books. John Cato and Paul Jeffreys run Life Rune Books and Combat 18 has Resurgam Publications.

These clubs and others, such as Aurora publications, peddle hate material and bomb manuals. Pierce runs a short wave radio station which transmits to Europe. Life Rune Books publishes the station's frequencies but the main advertisement appears in the BNP magazine Spearhead.

Gary Lauck, a German American, runs the NSDAPÐAO, (National Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partie Ð Auslands Organisation/National Socialist German Workers' Party - Overseas Organisation) from the USA.

He publishes White Power in several European languages, including Russian, and distributes computer discs, which contain coded messages, to his comrades in Europe and bomb manuals, which are simple to follow and therefore particularly dangerous.

Fringe Groups

The Church of the Creator (COTC) was set up in the USA by Ben Klassen, a millionaire fascist who killed himself in 1993. It is a pagan church, which believes in the Norse gods of the Vikings and denounces both Christians and Jews.

It has a small number of disciples in Britain who use the title of Reverend. One of its activists is Christina Yianni, alias Christine Johns. She is a graduate who was once a very active member of the BNP but now appears to devote herself to the COTC.

Among the COTC's other key personnel in Britain is Walter Carr, a member of the BNP, lifelong nazi and personal friend of Colin Jordan. Alan Milnes from Cumbria is another leading activist, dividing his time between the BNP and the COTC.

The COTC's publication, Racial Loyalty, calls for "racial holy war", sometimes abbreviated to RAHOWA. Some of its activities have been financed by old British nazis at the request of key nazis in the USA.

The Aryan Resistance Movement (ARM) is run from the West Midlands by Adrian Blundell, a young skinhead thug, and his partner Cathy Murphy. They have drawn much of their inspiration from Max Wagegg, an old German nazi soldier who lives in Birmingham. Murphy and Blundell have operated with Blood and Honour and the BNP. They have attended at least one camp organised by the BNP's John Peacock.

Recruiting techniques of fascist organisations

The recruiting techniques of the various British groups vary but many members join in response to the stickers and leaflets that the groups distribute. The British National Party's favourite tactic is to select an inner city area where some racial tension already exists, wait for a physical clash to take place and move in, in its wake.

Another technique is to start a high profile campaign against the building of a mosque or Hindu temple. The most cynical of the BNP's campaigns are those about law and order initiatives. Although many BNP members have convictions for all kinds of serious and violent crimes, the BNP moves in claiming to defend law and order and promising to protect the local white community.

Combat 18 recruits largely by word of mouth as it is a clandestine movement. It has a fair following among some of the most violent football hooligans, from Glasgow Rangers to the Chelsea Headhunters.

The National Police Intelligence Squad, which monitors football violence, has graphic evidence showing the involvement of many BNP and C18 members in leading activities that end in serious disorder and injury, both in Britain and abroad.
Contact : bernard.omahoney@bernardomahoney.com
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